marc jacobs The History Of BallooningI

The History Of Ballooning

In the late 1700s, two French papermakers, Jacques Etienne and Joseph Montgolfier, began experimenting with hot air balloons. At first they filled paper bags with smoke, because they thought smoke would cause the bags to rise. On June 4, 1783, the brothers sent a large smoke filled balloon into the air over Annonay, France. Three months later, a balloon was sent aloft with a duck, rooster, and a sheep as passengers. That flight lasted eight minutes, and the animals were safely recovered.On Oct. 15, 1783, a French scientist, Jean Francois Pilatre de Rozier became the first person to make a flight in a balloon when he rose 80 feet in a captive Montgolfier balloon. Pilatre de Rozier and the Marquis Francois Laurent d’Arlandes made the first free flight in a Montgolfier balloon on Nov. 21, 1783. They rose to 300 feet in a 25 minute flight over Paris.Ballooning soon became a fad in Europe. On Jan. 7, 1785, Jean Pierre Blanchard, a French balloonist, and an American doctor named John Jeffries made the first balloon flight across the English Channel. Blanchard also made the first balloon flight in the United States, which wa marc jacobs s observed by President George Washington.In 1794, the French used captive balloons as observation platforms to report on enemy movements during warfare.During the Civil War in the United States, American balloonist Thaddeus Lowe organized and directed a balloon corps for the Union Army. In 1870 1871, balloons were used by the French as a means to communicate during the Franco Prussian War. During World War I the balloons were used by the Allies and the enemy. In World War II, balloon barrages were used by the Allies as well as the Axis countries.Balloons have been used for research, manned exploration of the stratosphere, meteorology studies, and as platforms for parachute jumps.Gas and hot air balloons are at present used for sports and commercial ballooning. Many balloonists take part in races and rallies, while others like to drift over the countryside. Balloon pilots must be at least 16 years old, have 10 hours flight time with a qualified instructor, and pass a written examination to qualify for a license by the Federal Aviation Administration.In 1976, three Americans, Ben Abruzzo, Maxie Anderson, and Larry Newman, became the first persons to cross the Atlantic Ocean in a balloon when marc jacobs they journeyed from Presque Isle, Me. to a site 60 miles west of Paris, France. The first transcontinental balloon flight for the United States was made by Maxie Anderson and his son Kris, who flew from Fort Baker, Calif. to Matane, Qu marc jacobs ebec. The first trans Pacific flight was completed on Nov. 12 marc jacobs , 1981, when Ben Abruzzo, Larry Newman, Ron Clark, and Rocky Aoki landed in Covelo, Calif., after a nonstop flight from Nagashima, Japan.

marc jacobs The History of AirbagsAirb

The History of Airbags

Airbags are a type of automobile safety restraint like seatbelts. They are gas inflated cushions built into the steering wheel, dashboard, door, roof, or seat of your car that use a crash sensor to trigger a rapid expansion to protect you from the impact of an accident. 5,071,161) to the only crash sensing technology available at the birth of the airbag industry. Breed invented a “sensor and safety system” in 1968, the world’s first electromechani marc jacobs cal automotive airbag system.

However, rudimental patents for airbags go back marc jacobs to the 1950s. Patent applications were submitted by German Walter Linderer and American John Hedrik as early as 1951.

Walter Linderer’s airbag was based on a compressed air system, either released by bumper contact or by the driver. Later research during th marc jacobs e sixties proved that compressed air could not blow the bags up fast enough. Linderer received German patent 896312. Patent 2,649,311 in 1953 for what he called a “safety cushion assembly for automotive vehicles.”In 1971, the Ford car company built an experimental airbag fleet.

General Motors tested airbags on the 1973 model Chevrolet automobile that were only sold for government use. The 1973, Oldsmobile Toronado was the first car with a passenger air bag intended for sale to the public. General Motors later offered an option to the general public of driver side airbags in full sized Oldsmobile’s and Buick’s in 1975 and 1976 respectively. Cadillacs were available with driver and passenger airbags options during those same years. Early airbags system had design issues resulting in fatalities caused solely by the airbags.

Airbags were offered once again as an option on the 1984 Ford Tempo automobile. By 1988, Chrysler became the first company to offer air bag restraint systems as standard equipment. In 1994, TRW began production of the first gas inflated airbag. They are now mandatory in all cars since 1998.

Types of Airbags

There are two types of airbags; frontal and the various types of side impact airbags. Advanced frontal air bag systems automatically determine if and with what level of power the driver frontal air bag and the passenger frontal air bag will inflate. The appropriate level of power is based upon sen marc jacobs sor inputs that can typically detect: 1) occupant size, 2) seat position, 3) seat belt use of the occupant, and 4) crash severity.

Side impact air bags (SABs) are inflatable devices that are designed to help protect your head and/or chest in the event of a serious crash involving the side of your vehicle. There are three main types of SABs: chest (or torso) SABs, head SABs and head/chest combination (or “combo”) SABs.