The history of a medical sensation
Stem cells are the cellular putty from which all tissues of the body are made. Ever since human embryonic stem cells were first grown in the lab, researchers have dreamed of using them to repair damaged tissue or create new organs, but such medical uses have also attracted controversy. Yesterday, the potential of stem cells to revolutionise medicine got a huge boost with news of an ultra versatile kind of stem cell from adult mouse cells using a remarkably simple method. This timeline takes you through the ups and downs of the stem cell rollercoaster.
1981, Mouse beginningsMartin Evans of Cardiff University, UK, then at the University of Cambridge, is first to identify embryonic stem cells in mice.
1997, Dolly the sheepIan Wilmut and his colleagues at the Roslin Institute, Edinburgh unveil Dolly the sheep, the first artificial animal clone. The process involves fusing a sheep egg with an udder cell and implanting the resulting hybrids into a surrogate mother sheep. Researchers speculate that similar hybrids made by fusing human embryonic stem cells with adult cells from a particular person could be used to create genetically matched tissue and organs.
1998, marc jacobs Stem cells go humanJames Thomson of the University of Wisconsin in Madison and John Gearhart of Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, respectively, isolate human embryonic stem cells and grow them in the lab.
2001, Bush controversyUS president George W. Bush limits federal funding of research on human embryonic stem cells because a human embryo is destroyed in the process. But Bush does allow continued research on human embryonic stem cells lines that were created before the restrictions were announc marc jacobs ed.
2005, Fraudulent clonesWoo Suk Hwang of Seoul National University in South Korea reports that his team has used therapeutic cloning a technique inspired by the one used to create Dolly to create human embryonic stem cells genetically ma marc jacobs tched to specific people. Later that year, his claims turn out to be false.
2006, Cells reprogrammedShinya Yamanaka of Kyoto University in Japan reveals a way of making embryonic like cells from adult cells avoiding the need to destroy an embryo. His team reprograms ordinary adult cells by inserting four key genes forming “induced pluripotent stem cells”.
2007, Nobel prizeEvans shares the Nobel prize for medicine with Mario Capecchi and Oliver Smithies for work on genetics and embryonic stem cells.
2009, Obama powerPresident Barack Obama lifts 2001 restrictions on federal funding for human embryonic stem cell research.
2010, Spinal injuryA person with spin marc jacobs al injury becomes the first to receive a medical treatment derived from human embryonic stem cells as part of a trial by Geron of Menlo Park, California, a pioneering company for human embryonic stem cell therapies.
2012, Blindness treatedHuman embryonic stem cells show medical promise in a treatment that eases blindness.
2012, Another NobelYamanaka wins a Nobel prize for creating induced pluripotent stem cells, which he shares with John Gurdon of the University of Cambridge.
2013, Therapeutic cloningShoukhrat Mitalipov at the Oregon National Primate Research Center in Beaverton and his colleagues produce human embryonic stem cells using therapeutic cloning the breakthrough falsely claimed in 2005.
2014, Pre embyronic stateCharles Vacanti of Harvard Medical School together with Haruko Obokata at the Riken Center for Developmental Biology in Kobe, Japan, and colleagues announced a revolutionary discovery that any cell can potentially be rewound to a pre embryonic state using a simple, 30 minute technique.
2014, Human trialsMasayo Takahashi at the same Riken centre is due to select patients for what promises to be the world’s first trial of a therapy based on induced pluripotent stem cells, to treat a form of age related blindness.